Settings

Warning

重写设置时要小心,特别是当默认值是非空列表或字典时,如STATICFILES_FINDERS 确保你保留了你想使用的Django功能所需的组件。

Core Settings

以下是Django核心中可用的设置列表及其默认值。 下面列出了由contrib应用程序提供的设置,随后是核心设置的主题索引。 有关介绍材料,请参阅设置主题指南

ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES

Default: {} (Empty dictionary)

字典将“app_label.model_name”字符串映射到接受模型对象并返回其URL的函数。 这是在每个安装的基础上插入或覆盖get_absolute_url()函数的一种方法。 Example:

ABSOLUTE_URL_OVERRIDES = {
    'blogs.weblog': lambda o: "/blogs/%s/" % o.slug,
    'news.story': lambda o: "/stories/%s/%s/" % (o.pub_year, o.slug),
}

请注意,无论实际模型类名称的大小写如何,此设置中使用的模型名称应全部为小写。

ADMINS

Default: [] (Empty list)

所有获取代码错误通知的人的列表。 当在LOGGING中配置DEBUG = FalseAdminEmailHandler时(默认完成),Django会通过电子邮件向这些人发送请求/响应周期。

列表中的每个项目应该是(全名,电子邮件地址)的元组。 Example:

[('John', 'john@example.com'), ('Mary', 'mary@example.com')]

ALLOWED_HOSTS

Default: [] (Empty list)

表示此Django网站可以提供服务的主机/域名的字符串列表。 这是一项安全措施,可以防止HTTP头攻击,即使在许多看似安全的Web服务器配置下也是如此。

这个列表中的值可以是完全限定的名称(例如'www.example.com'),在这种情况下,它们将完全与请求的Host不敏感,不包括端口)。 以句号开头的值可以用作子域通配符:'example.com'将匹配example.comwww.example.com以及example.com的任何其他子域。 '*'将匹配任何内容;在这种情况下,您有责任提供您自己对Host标头的验证(可能在中间件中;如果是这样,该中间件必须在MIDDLEWARE中首先列出)。

Django还允许任何条目的fully qualified domain name (FQDN) 某些浏览器在Host标头中包含一个尾部的点,Django在执行主机验证时会剥去它。

如果Host标头(或X-Forwarded-Host如果启用了USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST)与此列表中的任何值都不匹配,则django.http.HttpRequest.get_host()方法将引发SuspiciousOperation

DEBUGTrue并且ALLOWED_HOSTS为空时,主机根据['localhost', '127.0.0.1', '[:: 1]']

ALLOWED_HOSTSchecked when running tests

此验证仅适用于get_host();如果您的代码直接从request.META访问Host头,则您将绕过此安全保护。

Changed in Django 1.11:

在旧版本中,运行测试时未检查ALLOWED_HOSTS

在旧版本中,如果DEBUG = TrueALLOWED_HOSTS未被选中。 This was also changed in Django 1.10.3, 1.9.11, and 1.8.16 to prevent a DNS rebinding attack.

APPEND_SLASH

Default: True

当设置为True时,如果请求URL与URLconf中的任何模式都不匹配,并且它不以斜线结尾,则会将HTTP重定向发送到具有斜杠的相同URL。 请注意,重定向可能会导致POST请求中提交的任何数据丢失。

APPEND_SLASH设置仅在安装CommonMiddleware时使用(请参阅中间件)。 See also PREPEND_WWW.

CACHES

Default:

{
    'default': {
        'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache',
    }
}

包含Django使用的所有缓存设置的字典。 它是一个嵌套字典,其内容将缓存别名映射到包含单个缓存选项的字典。

CACHES设置必须配置默认缓存;任何数量的附加缓存也可以被指定。 如果您使用本地内存缓存以外的缓存后端,或者您需要定义多个缓存,则需要其他选项。 以下缓存选项可用。

BACKEND

Default: '' (Empty string)

要使用的缓存后端。 内置缓存后端是:

  • 'django.core.cache.backends.db.DatabaseCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.dummy.DummyCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache'
  • 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache'

您可以通过将BACKEND设置为缓存后端类的完全限定路径(即mypackage.backends.whatever.WhateverCache)来使用不支持Django的缓存后端)。

KEY_FUNCTION

一个字符串,其中包含指向函数(或任何可调用函数)的虚线路径,该函数定义如何将最前面的缓存关键字组成一个前缀,版本和关键字。 默认实现等同于该函数:

def make_key(key, key_prefix, version):
    return ':'.join([key_prefix, str(version), key])

只要具有相同的参数签名,您可以使用任何您想要的键功能。

有关更多信息,请参阅缓存文档

KEY_PREFIX

Default: '' (Empty string)

为一个字符串,将被自动包含在Django服务器使用的所有缓存关键字中(默认预置)。

有关更多信息,请参阅缓存文档

LOCATION

Default: '' (Empty string)

The location of the cache to use. 这可能是文件系统缓存的目录,Memcache服务器的主机和端口,或简单地说是本地内存缓存的标识名称。 e.g.:

CACHES = {
    'default': {
        'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache',
        'LOCATION': '/var/tmp/django_cache',
    }
}

OPTIONS

Default: None

Extra parameters to pass to the cache backend. Available parameters vary depending on your cache backend.

Some information on available parameters can be found in the cache arguments documentation. For more information, consult your backend module’s own documentation.

TIMEOUT

Default: 300

The number of seconds before a cache entry is considered stale. If the value of this settings is None, cache entries will not expire.

VERSION

Default: 1

The default version number for cache keys generated by the Django server.

See the cache documentation for more information.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_ALIAS

Default: default

The cache connection to use for the cache middleware.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX

Default: '' (Empty string)

A string which will be prefixed to the cache keys generated by the cache middleware. This prefix is combined with the KEY_PREFIX setting; it does not replace it.

See Django’s cache framework.

CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS

Default: 600

The default number of seconds to cache a page for the cache middleware.

See Django’s cache framework.

CSRF_USE_SESSIONS

New in Django 1.11.

Default: False

Whether to store the CSRF token in the user’s session instead of in a cookie. It requires the use of django.contrib.sessions.

Storing the CSRF token in a cookie (Django’s default) is safe, but storing it in the session is common practice in other web frameworks and therefore sometimes demanded by security auditors.

CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW

Default: 'django.views.csrf.csrf_failure'

A dotted path to the view function to be used when an incoming request is rejected by the CSRF protection. The function should have this signature:

def csrf_failure(request, reason=""):
    ...

where reason is a short message (intended for developers or logging, not for end users) indicating the reason the request was rejected. It should return an HttpResponseForbidden.

django.views.csrf.csrf_failure() accepts an additional template_name parameter that defaults to '403_csrf.html'. If a template with that name exists, it will be used to render the page.

CSRF_HEADER_NAME

Default: 'HTTP_X_CSRFTOKEN'

The name of the request header used for CSRF authentication.

As with other HTTP headers in request.META, the header name received from the server is normalized by converting all characters to uppercase, replacing any hyphens with underscores, and adding an 'HTTP_' prefix to the name. For example, if your client sends a 'X-XSRF-TOKEN' header, the setting should be 'HTTP_X_XSRF_TOKEN'.

CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS

Default: [] (Empty list)

A list of hosts which are trusted origins for unsafe requests (e.g. POST). For a secure unsafe request, Django’s CSRF protection requires that the request have a Referer header that matches the origin present in the Host header. This prevents, for example, a POST request from subdomain.example.com from succeeding against api.example.com. If you need cross-origin unsafe requests over HTTPS, continuing the example, add "subdomain.example.com" to this list. The setting also supports subdomains, so you could add ".example.com", for example, to allow access from all subdomains of example.com.

DATABASES

Default: {} (Empty dictionary)

字典包含Django使用的所有数据库设置的。 它是一个嵌套字典,其内容将数据库别名映射到包含单个数据库选项的字典。

DATABASES设置必须配置一个默认的数据库;还可以指定任意数量的附加数据库。

最简单的设置文件是使用SQLite进行单一数据库设置的。 This can be configured using the following:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        'NAME': 'mydatabase',
    }
}

当连接到其他数据库后端时,如MySQL,Oracle或PostgreSQL,将需要额外的连接参数。 有关如何指定其他数据库类型,请参阅下面的ENGINE设置。 This example is for PostgreSQL:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
        'NAME': 'mydatabase',
        'USER': 'mydatabaseuser',
        'PASSWORD': 'mypassword',
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'PORT': '5432',
    }
}

可以使用以下更复杂配置所需的内部选项:

ATOMIC_REQUESTS

Default: False

将此设置为True以将此数据库中的每个视图包装在事务中。 请参阅将交易与HTTP请求绑定

AUTOCOMMIT

Default: True

如果您想要禁用Django的事务管理并实现您自己的事务,请将其设置为False

ENGINE

Default: '' (Empty string)

要使用的数据库后端。 内置的数据库后端是:

  • 'django.db.backends.postgresql'
  • 'django.db.backends.mysql'
  • 'django.db.backends.sqlite3'
  • 'django.db.backends.oracle'

通过将ENGINE设置为完全限定的路径(即mypackage.backends.whatever),您可以使用不支持Django的数据库后端。

HOST

Default: '' (Empty string)

连接到数据库时使用哪个主机。 一个空字符串表示localhost。 不同SQLite一起使用。

如果此值以正斜杠('/')开头,并且您正在使用MySQL,则MySQL将通过Unix套接字连接到指定的套接字。 For example:

"HOST": '/var/run/mysql'

如果你正在使用MySQL并且这个值以正斜杠开始,那么这个值被认为是主机。

如果您使用PostgreSQL,默认情况下(空HOST),通过UNIX域套接字(pg_hba.conf中的'本地'行)完成与数据库的连接。 如果您的UNIX域套接字不在标准位置,请使用postgresql.conf中相同的unix_socket_directory值。 如果要通过TCP套接字进行连接,请将HOST设置为'localhost'或'127.0.0.1'(pg_hba.conf中的'主机'行)。 在Windows上,您应该始终定义HOST,因为UNIX域套接字不可用。

NAME

Default: '' (Empty string)

要使用的数据库的名称。 对于SQLite,它是数据库文件的完整路径。 指定路径时,即使在Windows上也要使用正斜杠(例如,C:/homes/user/mysite/sqlite3.db)。

CONN_MAX_AGE

Default: 0

数据库连接的生命周期,以秒为单位。 设置为0则在每个请求结束时会关闭数据库连接-Django的历史行为-而设置为None将会无限持续连接。

OPTIONS

Default: {} (Empty dictionary)

连接到数据库时使用的额外参数。 可用参数因数据库后端而异。

有关可用参数的一些信息可以在Database Backends文档中找到。 有关更多信息,请查阅您的后端模块自己的文档。

PASSWORD

Default: '' (Empty string)

The password to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.

PORT

Default: '' (Empty string)

The port to use when connecting to the database. An empty string means the default port. Not used with SQLite.

TIME_ZONE

Default: None

表示存储在此数据库中的日期时间的时区的字符串(假定它不支持时区)或 DATABASES设置的内部选项接受与一般TIME_ZONE设置相同的值。

这允许与存储日期时间的第三方数据库在本地时间而不是UTC进行交互。 为避免出现DST更改的问题,您不应为由Django管理的数据库设置此选项。

USE_TZTrue且数据库不支持时区时(例如SQLite,MySQL,Oracle),Django根据此选项在本地时间读取和写入日期时间如果不是,则依据UTC。

USE_TZTrue且数据库支持时区(例如PostgreSQL)时,设置此选项是错误的。

USE_TZFalse时,设置此选项是错误的。

DISABLE_SERVER_SIDE_CURSORS

New in Django 1.11.1.

Default: False

Set this to True if you want to disable the use of server-side cursors with QuerySet.iterator(). Transaction pooling and server-side cursors describes the use case.

This is a PostgreSQL-specific setting.

USER

Default: '' (Empty string)

The username to use when connecting to the database. Not used with SQLite.

TEST

Default: {} (Empty dictionary)

A dictionary of settings for test databases; for more details about the creation and use of test databases, see The test database.

Here’s an example with a test database configuration:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
        'USER': 'mydatabaseuser',
        'NAME': 'mydatabase',
        'TEST': {
            'NAME': 'mytestdatabase',
        },
    },
}

The following keys in the TEST dictionary are available:

CHARSET

Default: None

The character set encoding used to create the test database. The value of this string is passed directly through to the database, so its format is backend-specific.

Supported by the PostgreSQL (postgresql) and MySQL (mysql) backends.

COLLATION

Default: None

The collation order to use when creating the test database. This value is passed directly to the backend, so its format is backend-specific.

Only supported for the mysql backend (see the MySQL manual for details).

DEPENDENCIES

Default: ['default'], for all databases other than default, which has no dependencies.

The creation-order dependencies of the database. See the documentation on controlling the creation order of test databases for details.

MIRROR

Default: None

The alias of the database that this database should mirror during testing.

This setting exists to allow for testing of primary/replica (referred to as master/slave by some databases) configurations of multiple databases. See the documentation on testing primary/replica configurations for details.

NAME

Default: None

The name of database to use when running the test suite.

If the default value (None) is used with the SQLite database engine, the tests will use a memory resident database. For all other database engines the test database will use the name 'test_' + DATABASE_NAME.

See The test database.

SERIALIZE

Boolean value to control whether or not the default test runner serializes the database into an in-memory JSON string before running tests (used to restore the database state between tests if you don’t have transactions). You can set this to False to speed up creation time if you don’t have any test classes with serialized_rollback=True.

TEMPLATE
New in Django 1.11.

This is a PostgreSQL-specific setting.

The name of a template (e.g. 'template0') from which to create the test database.

CREATE_DB

Default: True

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

If it is set to False, the test tablespaces won’t be automatically created at the beginning of the tests or dropped at the end.

CREATE_USER

Default: True

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

If it is set to False, the test user won’t be automatically created at the beginning of the tests and dropped at the end.

USER

Default: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The username to use when connecting to the Oracle database that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will use 'test_' + USER.

PASSWORD

Default: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The password to use when connecting to the Oracle database that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will generate a random password.

Changed in Django 1.11:

Older versions used a hardcoded default password. This was also changed in 1.10.3, 1.9.11, and 1.8.16 to fix possible security implications.

TBLSPACE

Default: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the tablespace that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will use 'test_' + USER.

TBLSPACE_TMP

Default: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the temporary tablespace that will be used when running tests. If not provided, Django will use 'test_' + USER + '_temp'.

DATAFILE

Default: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the datafile to use for the TBLSPACE. If not provided, Django will use TBLSPACE + '.dbf'.

DATAFILE_TMP

Default: None

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The name of the datafile to use for the TBLSPACE_TMP. If not provided, Django will use TBLSPACE_TMP + '.dbf'.

DATAFILE_MAXSIZE

Default: '500M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The maximum size that the DATAFILE is allowed to grow to.

DATAFILE_TMP_MAXSIZE

Default: '500M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The maximum size that the DATAFILE_TMP is allowed to grow to.

DATAFILE_SIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '50M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The initial size of the DATAFILE.

DATAFILE_TMP_SIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '50M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The initial size of the DATAFILE_TMP.

DATAFILE_EXTSIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '25M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The amount by which the DATAFILE is extended when more space is required.

DATAFILE_TMP_EXTSIZE
New in Django 2.0.

Default: '25M'

This is an Oracle-specific setting.

The amount by which the DATAFILE_TMP is extended when more space is required.

DATA_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE

Default: 2621440 (i.e. 2.5 MB).

The maximum size in bytes that a request body may be before a SuspiciousOperation (RequestDataTooBig) is raised. The check is done when accessing request.body or request.POST and is calculated against the total request size excluding any file upload data. You can set this to None to disable the check. Applications that are expected to receive unusually large form posts should tune this setting.

The amount of request data is correlated to the amount of memory needed to process the request and populate the GET and POST dictionaries. Large requests could be used as a denial-of-service attack vector if left unchecked. Since web servers don’t typically perform deep request inspection, it’s not possible to perform a similar check at that level.

See also FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE.

DATA_UPLOAD_MAX_NUMBER_FIELDS

Default: 1000

The maximum number of parameters that may be received via GET or POST before a SuspiciousOperation (TooManyFields) is raised. You can set this to None to disable the check. Applications that are expected to receive an unusually large number of form fields should tune this setting.

The number of request parameters is correlated to the amount of time needed to process the request and populate the GET and POST dictionaries. Large requests could be used as a denial-of-service attack vector if left unchecked. Since web servers don’t typically perform deep request inspection, it’s not possible to perform a similar check at that level.

DATABASE_ROUTERS

Default: [] (Empty list)

The list of routers that will be used to determine which database to use when performing a database query.

See the documentation on automatic database routing in multi database configurations.

DATE_FORMAT

Default: 'N j, Y' (e.g. Feb. 4, 2003)

The default formatting to use for displaying date fields in any part of the system. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and SHORT_DATE_FORMAT.

DATE_INPUT_FORMATS

Default:

[
    '%Y-%m-%d', '%m/%d/%Y', '%m/%d/%y', # '2006-10-25', '10/25/2006', '10/25/06'
    '%b %d %Y', '%b %d, %Y',            # 'Oct 25 2006', 'Oct 25, 2006'
    '%d %b %Y', '%d %b, %Y',            # '25 Oct 2006', '25 Oct, 2006'
    '%B %d %Y', '%B %d, %Y',            # 'October 25 2006', 'October 25, 2006'
    '%d %B %Y', '%d %B, %Y',            # '25 October 2006', '25 October, 2006'
]

A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a date field. Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these format strings use Python’s datetime module syntax, not the format strings from the date template filter.

When USE_L10N is True, the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS and TIME_INPUT_FORMATS.

DATETIME_FORMAT

Default: 'N j, Y, P' (e.g. Feb. 4, 2003, 4 p.m.)

The default formatting to use for displaying datetime fields in any part of the system. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT.

DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS

Default:

[
    '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S',     # '2006-10-25 14:30:59'
    '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f',  # '2006-10-25 14:30:59.000200'
    '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M',        # '2006-10-25 14:30'
    '%Y-%m-%d',              # '2006-10-25'
    '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S',     # '10/25/2006 14:30:59'
    '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S.%f',  # '10/25/2006 14:30:59.000200'
    '%m/%d/%Y %H:%M',        # '10/25/2006 14:30'
    '%m/%d/%Y',              # '10/25/2006'
    '%m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S',     # '10/25/06 14:30:59'
    '%m/%d/%y %H:%M:%S.%f',  # '10/25/06 14:30:59.000200'
    '%m/%d/%y %H:%M',        # '10/25/06 14:30'
    '%m/%d/%y',              # '10/25/06'
]

A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a datetime field. Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these format strings use Python’s datetime module syntax, not the format strings from the date template filter.

When USE_L10N is True, the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DATE_INPUT_FORMATS and TIME_INPUT_FORMATS.

DEBUG

Default: False

A boolean that turns on/off debug mode.

Never deploy a site into production with DEBUG turned on.

Did you catch that? NEVER deploy a site into production with DEBUG turned on.

One of the main features of debug mode is the display of detailed error pages. If your app raises an exception when DEBUG is True, Django will display a detailed traceback, including a lot of metadata about your environment, such as all the currently defined Django settings (from settings.py).

As a security measure, Django will not include settings that might be sensitive, such as SECRET_KEY. Specifically, it will exclude any setting whose name includes any of the following:

  • 'API'
  • 'KEY'
  • 'PASS'
  • 'SECRET'
  • 'SIGNATURE'
  • 'TOKEN'

Note that these are partial matches. 'PASS' will also match PASSWORD, just as 'TOKEN' will also match TOKENIZED and so on.

Still, note that there are always going to be sections of your debug output that are inappropriate for public consumption. File paths, configuration options and the like all give attackers extra information about your server.

It is also important to remember that when running with DEBUG turned on, Django will remember every SQL query it executes. This is useful when you’re debugging, but it’ll rapidly consume memory on a production server.

Finally, if DEBUG is False, you also need to properly set the ALLOWED_HOSTS setting. Failing to do so will result in all requests being returned as “Bad Request (400)”.

Note

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject sets DEBUG = True for convenience.

DEBUG_PROPAGATE_EXCEPTIONS

Default: False

If set to True, Django’s exception handling of view functions (handler500, or the debug view if DEBUG is True) and logging of 500 responses (django.request) is skipped and exceptions propagate upwards.

This can be useful for some test setups. It shouldn’t be used on a live site unless you want your web server (instead of Django) to generate “Internal Server Error” responses. In that case, make sure your server doesn’t show the stack trace or other sensitive information in the response.

DECIMAL_SEPARATOR

Default: '.' (Dot)

Default decimal separator used when formatting decimal numbers.

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also NUMBER_GROUPING, THOUSAND_SEPARATOR and USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR.

DEFAULT_CHARSET

Default: 'utf-8'

Default charset to use for all HttpResponse objects, if a MIME type isn’t manually specified. Used with DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE to construct the Content-Type header.

DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE

Default: 'text/html'

Default content type to use for all HttpResponse objects, if a MIME type isn’t manually specified. Used with DEFAULT_CHARSET to construct the Content-Type header.

Deprecated since version 2.0: This setting is deprecated because it doesn’t interact well with third-party apps and is obsolete since HTML5 has mostly superseded XHTML.

DEFAULT_EXCEPTION_REPORTER_FILTER

Default: 'django.views.debug.SafeExceptionReporterFilter'

Default exception reporter filter class to be used if none has been assigned to the HttpRequest instance yet. See Filtering error reports.

DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE

Default: 'django.core.files.storage.FileSystemStorage'

Default file storage class to be used for any file-related operations that don’t specify a particular storage system. See Managing files.

DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL

Default: 'webmaster@localhost'

Default email address to use for various automated correspondence from the site manager(s). This doesn’t include error messages sent to ADMINS and MANAGERS; for that, see SERVER_EMAIL.

DEFAULT_INDEX_TABLESPACE

Default: '' (Empty string)

Default tablespace to use for indexes on fields that don’t specify one, if the backend supports it (see Tablespaces).

DEFAULT_TABLESPACE

Default: '' (Empty string)

Default tablespace to use for models that don’t specify one, if the backend supports it (see Tablespaces).

DISALLOWED_USER_AGENTS

Default: [] (Empty list)

List of compiled regular expression objects representing User-Agent strings that are not allowed to visit any page, systemwide. Use this for bad robots/crawlers. This is only used if CommonMiddleware is installed (see Middleware).

EMAIL_BACKEND

Default: 'django.core.mail.backends.smtp.EmailBackend'

The backend to use for sending emails. For the list of available backends see Sending email.

EMAIL_FILE_PATH

Default: Not defined

The directory used by the file email backend to store output files.

EMAIL_HOST

Default: 'localhost'

The host to use for sending email.

See also EMAIL_PORT.

EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD

Default: '' (Empty string)

Password to use for the SMTP server defined in EMAIL_HOST. This setting is used in conjunction with EMAIL_HOST_USER when authenticating to the SMTP server. If either of these settings is empty, Django won’t attempt authentication.

See also EMAIL_HOST_USER.

EMAIL_HOST_USER

Default: '' (Empty string)

Username to use for the SMTP server defined in EMAIL_HOST. If empty, Django won’t attempt authentication.

See also EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD.

EMAIL_PORT

Default: 25

Port to use for the SMTP server defined in EMAIL_HOST.

EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX

Default: '[Django] '

Subject-line prefix for email messages sent with django.core.mail.mail_admins or django.core.mail.mail_managers. You’ll probably want to include the trailing space.

EMAIL_USE_LOCALTIME

New in Django 1.11.

Default: False

Whether to send the SMTP Date header of email messages in the local time zone (True) or in UTC (False).

EMAIL_USE_TLS

Default: False

Whether to use a TLS (secure) connection when talking to the SMTP server. This is used for explicit TLS connections, generally on port 587. If you are experiencing hanging connections, see the implicit TLS setting EMAIL_USE_SSL.

EMAIL_USE_SSL

Default: False

Whether to use an implicit TLS (secure) connection when talking to the SMTP server. In most email documentation this type of TLS connection is referred to as SSL. It is generally used on port 465. If you are experiencing problems, see the explicit TLS setting EMAIL_USE_TLS.

Note that EMAIL_USE_TLS/EMAIL_USE_SSL are mutually exclusive, so only set one of those settings to True.

EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILE

Default: None

If EMAIL_USE_SSL or EMAIL_USE_TLS is True, you can optionally specify the path to a PEM-formatted certificate chain file to use for the SSL connection.

EMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE

Default: None

If EMAIL_USE_SSL or EMAIL_USE_TLS is True, you can optionally specify the path to a PEM-formatted private key file to use for the SSL connection.

Note that setting EMAIL_SSL_CERTFILE and EMAIL_SSL_KEYFILE doesn’t result in any certificate checking. They’re passed to the underlying SSL connection. Please refer to the documentation of Python’s ssl.wrap_socket() function for details on how the certificate chain file and private key file are handled.

EMAIL_TIMEOUT

Default: None

Specifies a timeout in seconds for blocking operations like the connection attempt.

FILE_CHARSET

Default: 'utf-8'

The character encoding used to decode any files read from disk. This includes template files and initial SQL data files.

FILE_UPLOAD_HANDLERS

Default:

[
    'django.core.files.uploadhandler.MemoryFileUploadHandler',
    'django.core.files.uploadhandler.TemporaryFileUploadHandler',
]

A list of handlers to use for uploading. Changing this setting allows complete customization – even replacement – of Django’s upload process.

See Managing files for details.

FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE

Default: 2621440 (i.e. 2.5 MB).

The maximum size (in bytes) that an upload will be before it gets streamed to the file system. See Managing files for details.

See also DATA_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE.

FILE_UPLOAD_DIRECTORY_PERMISSIONS

Default: None

The numeric mode to apply to directories created in the process of uploading files.

This setting also determines the default permissions for collected static directories when using the collectstatic management command. See collectstatic for details on overriding it.

This value mirrors the functionality and caveats of the FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS setting.

FILE_UPLOAD_PERMISSIONS

Default: None

The numeric mode (i.e. 0o644) to set newly uploaded files to. For more information about what these modes mean, see the documentation for os.chmod().

If this isn’t given or is None, you’ll get operating-system dependent behavior. On most platforms, temporary files will have a mode of 0o600, and files saved from memory will be saved using the system’s standard umask.

For security reasons, these permissions aren’t applied to the temporary files that are stored in FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR.

This setting also determines the default permissions for collected static files when using the collectstatic management command. See collectstatic for details on overriding it.

Warning

Always prefix the mode with a 0.

If you’re not familiar with file modes, please note that the leading 0 is very important: it indicates an octal number, which is the way that modes must be specified. If you try to use 644, you’ll get totally incorrect behavior.

FILE_UPLOAD_TEMP_DIR

Default: None

The directory to store data to (typically files larger than FILE_UPLOAD_MAX_MEMORY_SIZE) temporarily while uploading files. If None, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the operating system. For example, this will default to /tmp on *nix-style operating systems.

See Managing files for details.

FIRST_DAY_OF_WEEK

Default: 0 (Sunday)

A number representing the first day of the week. This is especially useful when displaying a calendar. This value is only used when not using format internationalization, or when a format cannot be found for the current locale.

The value must be an integer from 0 to 6, where 0 means Sunday, 1 means Monday and so on.

FIXTURE_DIRS

Default: [] (Empty list)

List of directories searched for fixture files, in addition to the fixtures directory of each application, in search order.

Note that these paths should use Unix-style forward slashes, even on Windows.

See Providing initial data with fixtures and Fixture loading.

FORCE_SCRIPT_NAME

Default: None

If not None, this will be used as the value of the SCRIPT_NAME environment variable in any HTTP request. This setting can be used to override the server-provided value of SCRIPT_NAME, which may be a rewritten version of the preferred value or not supplied at all. It is also used by django.setup() to set the URL resolver script prefix outside of the request/response cycle (e.g. in management commands and standalone scripts) to generate correct URLs when SCRIPT_NAME is not /.

FORM_RENDERER

New in Django 1.11.

Default: 'django.forms.renderers.DjangoTemplates'

The class that renders form widgets. It must implement the low-level render API.

FORMAT_MODULE_PATH

Default: None

A full Python path to a Python package that contains format definitions for project locales. If not None, Django will check for a formats.py file, under the directory named as the current locale, and will use the formats defined in this file.

For example, if FORMAT_MODULE_PATH is set to mysite.formats, and current language is en (English), Django will expect a directory tree like:

mysite/
    formats/
        __init__.py
        en/
            __init__.py
            formats.py

You can also set this setting to a list of Python paths, for example:

FORMAT_MODULE_PATH = [
    'mysite.formats',
    'some_app.formats',
]

When Django searches for a certain format, it will go through all given Python paths until it finds a module that actually defines the given format. This means that formats defined in packages farther up in the list will take precedence over the same formats in packages farther down.

Available formats are DATE_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT, MONTH_DAY_FORMAT, SHORT_DATE_FORMAT, SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT, FIRST_DAY_OF_WEEK, DECIMAL_SEPARATOR, THOUSAND_SEPARATOR and NUMBER_GROUPING.

IGNORABLE_404_URLS

Default: [] (Empty list)

List of compiled regular expression objects describing URLs that should be ignored when reporting HTTP 404 errors via email (see Error reporting). Regular expressions are matched against request's full paths (including query string, if any). Use this if your site does not provide a commonly requested file such as favicon.ico or robots.txt, or if it gets hammered by script kiddies.

This is only used if BrokenLinkEmailsMiddleware is enabled (see Middleware).

INSTALLED_APPS

Default: [] (Empty list)

A list of strings designating all applications that are enabled in this Django installation. Each string should be a dotted Python path to:

  • an application configuration class (preferred), or
  • a package containing an application.

Learn more about application configurations.

Use the application registry for introspection

Your code should never access INSTALLED_APPS directly. Use django.apps.apps instead.

Application names and labels must be unique in INSTALLED_APPS

Application names — the dotted Python path to the application package — must be unique. There is no way to include the same application twice, short of duplicating its code under another name.

Application labels — by default the final part of the name — must be unique too. For example, you can’t include both django.contrib.auth and myproject.auth. However, you can relabel an application with a custom configuration that defines a different label.

These rules apply regardless of whether INSTALLED_APPS references application configuration classes or application packages.

When several applications provide different versions of the same resource (template, static file, management command, translation), the application listed first in INSTALLED_APPS has precedence.

INTERNAL_IPS

Default: [] (Empty list)

A list of IP addresses, as strings, that:

  • Allow the debug() context processor to add some variables to the template context.
  • Can use the admindocs bookmarklets even if not logged in as a staff user.
  • Are marked as “internal” (as opposed to “EXTERNAL”) in AdminEmailHandler emails.

LANGUAGE_CODE

Default: 'en-us'

A string representing the language code for this installation. This should be in standard language ID format. For example, U.S. English is "en-us". See also the list of language identifiers and Internationalization and localization.

USE_I18N must be active for this setting to have any effect.

It serves two purposes:

  • If the locale middleware isn’t in use, it decides which translation is served to all users.
  • If the locale middleware is active, it provides a fallback language in case the user’s preferred language can’t be determined or is not supported by the website. It also provides the fallback translation when a translation for a given literal doesn’t exist for the user’s preferred language.

See How Django discovers language preference for more details.

LANGUAGES

Default: A list of all available languages. This list is continually growing and including a copy here would inevitably become rapidly out of date. You can see the current list of translated languages by looking in django/conf/global_settings.py (or view the online source).

The list is a list of two-tuples in the format (language code, language name) – for example, ('ja', 'Japanese'). This specifies which languages are available for language selection. See Internationalization and localization.

Generally, the default value should suffice. Only set this setting if you want to restrict language selection to a subset of the Django-provided languages.

If you define a custom LANGUAGES setting, you can mark the language names as translation strings using the gettext_lazy() function.

Here’s a sample settings file:

from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _

LANGUAGES = [
    ('de', _('German')),
    ('en', _('English')),
]

LOCALE_PATHS

Default: [] (Empty list)

A list of directories where Django looks for translation files. See How Django discovers translations.

Example:

LOCALE_PATHS = [
    '/home/www/project/common_files/locale',
    '/var/local/translations/locale',
]

Django will look within each of these paths for the <locale_code>/LC_MESSAGES directories containing the actual translation files.

LOGGING

Default: A logging configuration dictionary.

A data structure containing configuration information. The contents of this data structure will be passed as the argument to the configuration method described in LOGGING_CONFIG.

Among other things, the default logging configuration passes HTTP 500 server errors to an email log handler when DEBUG is False. See also Configuring logging.

You can see the default logging configuration by looking in django/utils/log.py (or view the online source).

LOGGING_CONFIG

Default: 'logging.config.dictConfig'

A path to a callable that will be used to configure logging in the Django project. Points at an instance of Python’s dictConfig configuration method by default.

If you set LOGGING_CONFIG to None, the logging configuration process will be skipped.

MANAGERS

Default: [] (Empty list)

A list in the same format as ADMINS that specifies who should get broken link notifications when BrokenLinkEmailsMiddleware is enabled.

MEDIA_ROOT

Default: '' (Empty string)

绝对目录路径,指向用户上传的文件

Example: "/var/www/example.com/media/"

See also MEDIA_URL.

Warning

MEDIA_ROOTSTATIC_ROOT必须有不同的值。 在引入STATIC_ROOT之前,通常在MEDIA_ROOT上依赖或回退以提供静态文件;但是,由于这可能会造成严重的安全隐患,因此需要进行验证检查以防止它发生。

MEDIA_URL

Default: '' (Empty string)

处理从MEDIA_ROOT提供的媒体的URL,用于管理存储的文件 如果设置为非空值,它必须以斜杠结尾。 您需要在开发和生产环境中配置这些文件以供服务

如果您想在模板中使用{{ MEDIA_URL }},添加'django.template.context_processors.media'TEMPLATES'context_processors'选项中。

Example: "http://media.example.com/"

Warning

如果您接受来自不可信用户的上传内容,则存在安全风险! 有关缓解详情,请参阅用户上传内容上的安全指南主题。

Warning

MEDIA_URLSTATIC_URL必须有不同的值。 有关更多详细信息,请参阅MEDIA_ROOT

MIDDLEWARE

Default: None

要使用的中间件列表。 See Middleware.

MIGRATION_MODULES

Default: {} (Empty dictionary)

一个字典,指定可以在每个应用程序基础上找到迁移模块的程序包。 此设置的默认值为空字典,但迁移模块的默认包名称为migrations

Example:

{'blog': 'blog.db_migrations'}

在这种情况下,与blog应用有关的迁移将包含在blog.db_migrations包中。

如果您提供app_label参数,那么makemigrations会自动创建该程序包(如果它尚不存在)。

当您提供None作为应用程序的值时,无论现有migrations子模块如何,Django都会将该应用程序视为应用程序而不进行迁移。 例如,可以在测试设置文件中使用此功能,以在测试时跳过迁移(表格仍将为应用程序模型创建)。 如果在您的常规项目设置中使用该选项,请记住如果您想要创建表格,请使用迁移-run-syncdb应用程序。

MONTH_DAY_FORMAT

Default: 'F j'

在仅显示月份和日期的情况下,用于Django admin更改列表页面上的日期字段(可能还有系统的其他部分)的默认格式。

For example, when a Django admin change-list page is being filtered by a date drilldown, the header for a given day displays the day and month. Different locales have different formats. For example, U.S. English would say “January 1,” whereas Spanish might say “1 Enero.”

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied.

See allowed date format strings. See also DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT.

NUMBER_GROUPING

Default: 0

Number of digits grouped together on the integer part of a number.

Common use is to display a thousand separator. If this setting is 0, then no grouping will be applied to the number. If this setting is greater than 0, then THOUSAND_SEPARATOR will be used as the separator between those groups.

Some locales use non-uniform digit grouping, e.g. 10,00,00,000 in en_IN. For this case, you can provide a sequence with the number of digit group sizes to be applied. The first number defines the size of the group preceding the decimal delimiter, and each number that follows defines the size of preceding groups. If the sequence is terminated with -1, no further grouping is performed. If the sequence terminates with a 0, the last group size is used for the remainder of the number.

Example tuple for en_IN:

NUMBER_GROUPING = (3, 2, 0)

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DECIMAL_SEPARATOR, THOUSAND_SEPARATOR and USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR.

Changed in Django 1.11:

Support for non-uniform digit grouping was added.

PREPEND_WWW

Default: False

Whether to prepend the “www.” subdomain to URLs that don’t have it. This is only used if CommonMiddleware is installed (see Middleware). See also APPEND_SLASH.

ROOT_URLCONF

Default: Not defined

A string representing the full Python import path to your root URLconf. For example: "mydjangoapps.urls". Can be overridden on a per-request basis by setting the attribute urlconf on the incoming HttpRequest object. See How Django processes a request for details.

SECRET_KEY

Default: '' (Empty string)

A secret key for a particular Django installation. This is used to provide cryptographic signing, and should be set to a unique, unpredictable value.

django-admin startproject automatically adds a randomly-generated SECRET_KEY to each new project.

Uses of the key shouldn’t assume that it’s text or bytes. Every use should go through force_text() or force_bytes() to convert it to the desired type.

Django will refuse to start if SECRET_KEY is not set.

Warning

Keep this value secret.

Running Django with a known SECRET_KEY defeats many of Django’s security protections, and can lead to privilege escalation and remote code execution vulnerabilities.

The secret key is used for:

If you rotate your secret key, all of the above will be invalidated. Secret keys are not used for passwords of users and key rotation will not affect them.

Note

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject creates a unique SECRET_KEY for convenience.

SECURE_BROWSER_XSS_FILTER

Default: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware sets the X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block header on all responses that do not already have it.

SECURE_CONTENT_TYPE_NOSNIFF

Default: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware sets the X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff header on all responses that do not already have it.

SECURE_HSTS_INCLUDE_SUBDOMAINS

Default: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware adds the includeSubDomains directive to the HTTP Strict Transport Security header. It has no effect unless SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS is set to a non-zero value.

Warning

Setting this incorrectly can irreversibly (for the value of SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS) break your site. Read the HTTP Strict Transport Security documentation first.

SECURE_HSTS_PRELOAD

New in Django 1.11.

Default: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware adds the preload directive to the HTTP Strict Transport Security header. It has no effect unless SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS is set to a non-zero value.

SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS

Default: 0

If set to a non-zero integer value, the SecurityMiddleware sets the HTTP Strict Transport Security header on all responses that do not already have it.

Warning

Setting this incorrectly can irreversibly (for some time) break your site. Read the HTTP Strict Transport Security documentation first.

SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER

Default: None

A tuple representing a HTTP header/value combination that signifies a request is secure. This controls the behavior of the request object’s is_secure() method.

This takes some explanation. By default, is_secure() is able to determine whether a request is secure by looking at whether the requested URL uses “https://”. This is important for Django’s CSRF protection, and may be used by your own code or third-party apps.

If your Django app is behind a proxy, though, the proxy may be “swallowing” the fact that a request is HTTPS, using a non-HTTPS connection between the proxy and Django. In this case, is_secure() would always return False – even for requests that were made via HTTPS by the end user.

In this situation, you’ll want to configure your proxy to set a custom HTTP header that tells Django whether the request came in via HTTPS, and you’ll want to set SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER so that Django knows what header to look for.

You’ll need to set a tuple with two elements – the name of the header to look for and the required value. For example:

SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER = ('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO', 'https')

Here, we’re telling Django that we trust the X-Forwarded-Proto header that comes from our proxy, and any time its value is 'https', then the request is guaranteed to be secure (i.e., it originally came in via HTTPS). Obviously, you should only set this setting if you control your proxy or have some other guarantee that it sets/strips this header appropriately.

Note that the header needs to be in the format as used by request.META – all caps and likely starting with HTTP_. (Remember, Django automatically adds 'HTTP_' to the start of x-header names before making the header available in request.META.)

Warning

You will probably open security holes in your site if you set this without knowing what you’re doing. And if you fail to set it when you should. Seriously.

Make sure ALL of the following are true before setting this (assuming the values from the example above):

  • Your Django app is behind a proxy.
  • Your proxy strips the X-Forwarded-Proto header from all incoming requests. In other words, if end users include that header in their requests, the proxy will discard it.
  • Your proxy sets the X-Forwarded-Proto header and sends it to Django, but only for requests that originally come in via HTTPS.

If any of those are not true, you should keep this setting set to None and find another way of determining HTTPS, perhaps via custom middleware.

SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT

Default: [] (Empty list)

If a URL path matches a regular expression in this list, the request will not be redirected to HTTPS. If SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT is False, this setting has no effect.

SECURE_SSL_HOST

Default: None

If a string (e.g. secure.example.com), all SSL redirects will be directed to this host rather than the originally-requested host (e.g. www.example.com). If SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT is False, this setting has no effect.

SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT

Default: False

If True, the SecurityMiddleware redirects all non-HTTPS requests to HTTPS (except for those URLs matching a regular expression listed in SECURE_REDIRECT_EXEMPT).

Note

If turning this to True causes infinite redirects, it probably means your site is running behind a proxy and can’t tell which requests are secure and which are not. Your proxy likely sets a header to indicate secure requests; you can correct the problem by finding out what that header is and configuring the SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER setting accordingly.

SERIALIZATION_MODULES

Default: Not defined

A dictionary of modules containing serializer definitions (provided as strings), keyed by a string identifier for that serialization type. For example, to define a YAML serializer, use:

SERIALIZATION_MODULES = {'yaml': 'path.to.yaml_serializer'}

SERVER_EMAIL

Default: 'root@localhost'

The email address that error messages come from, such as those sent to ADMINS and MANAGERS.

Why are my emails sent from a different address?

This address is used only for error messages. It is not the address that regular email messages sent with send_mail() come from; for that, see DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL.

SHORT_DATE_FORMAT

Default: 'm/d/Y' (e.g. 12/31/2003)

An available formatting that can be used for displaying date fields on templates. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT and SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT.

SHORT_DATETIME_FORMAT

Default: 'm/d/Y P' (e.g. 12/31/2003 4 p.m.)

An available formatting that can be used for displaying datetime fields on templates. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT and SHORT_DATE_FORMAT.

SIGNING_BACKEND

Default: 'django.core.signing.TimestampSigner'

The backend used for signing cookies and other data.

See also the Cryptographic signing documentation.

SILENCED_SYSTEM_CHECKS

Default: [] (Empty list)

A list of identifiers of messages generated by the system check framework (i.e. ["models.W001"]) that you wish to permanently acknowledge and ignore. Silenced checks will not be output to the console.

See also the System check framework documentation.

TEMPLATES

Default: [] (Empty list)

A list containing the settings for all template engines to be used with Django. Each item of the list is a dictionary containing the options for an individual engine.

Here’s a simple setup that tells the Django template engine to load templates from the templates subdirectory inside each installed application:

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
        'APP_DIRS': True,
    },
]

The following options are available for all backends.

BACKEND

Default: Not defined

The template backend to use. The built-in template backends are:

  • 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates'
  • 'django.template.backends.jinja2.Jinja2'

You can use a template backend that doesn’t ship with Django by setting BACKEND to a fully-qualified path (i.e. 'mypackage.whatever.Backend').

NAME

Default: see below

The alias for this particular template engine. It’s an identifier that allows selecting an engine for rendering. Aliases must be unique across all configured template engines.

It defaults to the name of the module defining the engine class, i.e. the next to last piece of BACKEND, when it isn’t provided. For example if the backend is 'mypackage.whatever.Backend' then its default name is 'whatever'.

DIRS

Default: [] (Empty list)

Directories where the engine should look for template source files, in search order.

APP_DIRS

Default: False

Whether the engine should look for template source files inside installed applications.

Note

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject sets 'APP_DIRS': True.

OPTIONS

Default: {} (Empty dict)

Extra parameters to pass to the template backend. Available parameters vary depending on the template backend. See DjangoTemplates and Jinja2 for the options of the built-in backends.

TEST_RUNNER

Default: 'django.test.runner.DiscoverRunner'

The name of the class to use for starting the test suite. See Using different testing frameworks.

TEST_NON_SERIALIZED_APPS

Default: [] (Empty list)

In order to restore the database state between tests for TransactionTestCases and database backends without transactions, Django will serialize the contents of all apps when it starts the test run so it can then reload from that copy before running tests that need it.

This slows down the startup time of the test runner; if you have apps that you know don’t need this feature, you can add their full names in here (e.g. 'django.contrib.contenttypes') to exclude them from this serialization process.

THOUSAND_SEPARATOR

Default: ',' (Comma)

Default thousand separator used when formatting numbers. This setting is used only when USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR is True and NUMBER_GROUPING is greater than 0.

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also NUMBER_GROUPING, DECIMAL_SEPARATOR and USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR.

TIME_FORMAT

Default: 'P' (e.g. 4 p.m.)

The default formatting to use for displaying time fields in any part of the system. Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead. See allowed date format strings.

See also DATE_FORMAT and DATETIME_FORMAT.

TIME_INPUT_FORMATS

Default:

[
    '%H:%M:%S',     # '14:30:59'
    '%H:%M:%S.%f',  # '14:30:59.000200'
    '%H:%M',        # '14:30'
]

A list of formats that will be accepted when inputting data on a time field. Formats will be tried in order, using the first valid one. Note that these format strings use Python’s datetime module syntax, not the format strings from the date template filter.

When USE_L10N is True, the locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DATE_INPUT_FORMATS and DATETIME_INPUT_FORMATS.

TIME_ZONE

Default: 'America/Chicago'

A string representing the time zone for this installation. See the list of time zones.

Note

Since Django was first released with the TIME_ZONE set to 'America/Chicago', the global setting (used if nothing is defined in your project’s settings.py) remains 'America/Chicago' for backwards compatibility. New project templates default to 'UTC'.

Note that this isn’t necessarily the time zone of the server. For example, one server may serve multiple Django-powered sites, each with a separate time zone setting.

When USE_TZ is False, this is the time zone in which Django will store all datetimes. When USE_TZ is True, this is the default time zone that Django will use to display datetimes in templates and to interpret datetimes entered in forms.

On Unix environments (where time.tzset() is implemented), Django sets the os.environ['TZ'] variable to the time zone you specify in the TIME_ZONE setting. Thus, all your views and models will automatically operate in this time zone. However, Django won’t set the TZ environment variable if you’re using the manual configuration option as described in manually configuring settings. If Django doesn’t set the TZ environment variable, it’s up to you to ensure your processes are running in the correct environment.

Note

Django cannot reliably use alternate time zones in a Windows environment. If you’re running Django on Windows, TIME_ZONE must be set to match the system time zone.

USE_ETAGS

Default: False

A boolean that specifies whether to output the ETag header. This saves bandwidth but slows down performance. This is used by the CommonMiddleware and in the cache framework.

Deprecated since version 1.11: This setting is deprecated in favor of using ConditionalGetMiddleware, which sets an ETag regardless of this setting.

USE_I18N

Default: True

A boolean that specifies whether Django’s translation system should be enabled. This provides an easy way to turn it off, for performance. If this is set to False, Django will make some optimizations so as not to load the translation machinery.

See also LANGUAGE_CODE, USE_L10N and USE_TZ.

Note

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject includes USE_I18N = True for convenience.

USE_L10N

Default: False

A boolean that specifies if localized formatting of data will be enabled by default or not. If this is set to True, e.g. Django will display numbers and dates using the format of the current locale.

See also LANGUAGE_CODE, USE_I18N and USE_TZ.

Note

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject includes USE_L10N = True for convenience.

USE_THOUSAND_SEPARATOR

Default: False

A boolean that specifies whether to display numbers using a thousand separator. When USE_L10N is set to True and if this is also set to True, Django will use the values of THOUSAND_SEPARATOR and NUMBER_GROUPING to format numbers unless the locale already has an existing thousands separator. If there is a thousands separator in the locale format, it will have higher precedence and will be applied instead.

See also DECIMAL_SEPARATOR, NUMBER_GROUPING and THOUSAND_SEPARATOR.

USE_TZ

Default: False

A boolean that specifies if datetimes will be timezone-aware by default or not. If this is set to True, Django will use timezone-aware datetimes internally. Otherwise, Django will use naive datetimes in local time.

See also TIME_ZONE, USE_I18N and USE_L10N.

Note

The default settings.py file created by django-admin startproject includes USE_TZ = True for convenience.

USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST

Default: False

A boolean that specifies whether to use the X-Forwarded-Host header in preference to the Host header. This should only be enabled if a proxy which sets this header is in use.

This setting takes priority over USE_X_FORWARDED_PORT. Per RFC 7239#page-7, the X-Forwarded-Host header can include the port number, in which case you shouldn’t use USE_X_FORWARDED_PORT.

USE_X_FORWARDED_PORT

Default: False

A boolean that specifies whether to use the X-Forwarded-Port header in preference to the SERVER_PORT META variable. This should only be enabled if a proxy which sets this header is in use.

USE_X_FORWARDED_HOST takes priority over this setting.

WSGI_APPLICATION

Default: None

The full Python path of the WSGI application object that Django’s built-in servers (e.g. runserver) will use. The django-admin startproject management command will create a simple wsgi.py file with an application callable in it, and point this setting to that application.

If not set, the return value of django.core.wsgi.get_wsgi_application() will be used. In this case, the behavior of runserver will be identical to previous Django versions.

YEAR_MONTH_FORMAT

Default: 'F Y'

The default formatting to use for date fields on Django admin change-list pages – and, possibly, by other parts of the system – in cases when only the year and month are displayed.

For example, when a Django admin change-list page is being filtered by a date drilldown, the header for a given month displays the month and the year. Different locales have different formats. For example, U.S. English would say “January 2006,” whereas another locale might say “2006/January.”

Note that if USE_L10N is set to True, then the corresponding locale-dictated format has higher precedence and will be applied.

See allowed date format strings. See also DATE_FORMAT, DATETIME_FORMAT, TIME_FORMAT and MONTH_DAY_FORMAT.

X_FRAME_OPTIONS

Default: 'SAMEORIGIN'

The default value for the X-Frame-Options header used by XFrameOptionsMiddleware. See the clickjacking protection documentation.

Auth

Settings for django.contrib.auth.

AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS

Default: ['django.contrib.auth.backends.ModelBackend']

A list of authentication backend classes (as strings) to use when attempting to authenticate a user. See the authentication backends documentation for details.

AUTH_USER_MODEL

Default: 'auth.User'

用于表示用户的模型。 请参阅替换自定义用户模型

Warning

您无法在项目的整个生命周期内(即,一旦您已经制作并移植依赖于它的模型)更改AUTH_USER_MODEL设置。 它打算在项目开始时设置,并且它所引用的模型必须在它所在的应用程序的第一次迁移中可用。 有关更多详细信息,请参阅替换自定义用户模型

LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL

Default: '/accounts/profile/'

The URL where requests are redirected after login when the contrib.auth.login view gets no next parameter.

This is used by the login_required() decorator, for example.

This setting also accepts named URL patterns which can be used to reduce configuration duplication since you don’t have to define the URL in two places (settings and URLconf).

LOGIN_URL

Default: '/accounts/login/'

The URL where requests are redirected for login, especially when using the login_required() decorator.

This setting also accepts named URL patterns which can be used to reduce configuration duplication since you don’t have to define the URL in two places (settings and URLconf).

LOGOUT_REDIRECT_URL

Default: None

The URL where requests are redirected after a user logs out using LogoutView (if the view doesn’t get a next_page argument).

If None, no redirect will be performed and the logout view will be rendered.

This setting also accepts named URL patterns which can be used to reduce configuration duplication since you don’t have to define the URL in two places (settings and URLconf).

PASSWORD_RESET_TIMEOUT_DAYS

Default: 3

The number of days a password reset link is valid for. Used by the django.contrib.auth password reset mechanism.

PASSWORD_HASHERS

See How Django stores passwords.

Default:

[
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.PBKDF2SHA1PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.Argon2PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptSHA256PasswordHasher',
    'django.contrib.auth.hashers.BCryptPasswordHasher',
]

AUTH_PASSWORD_VALIDATORS

Default: [] (Empty list)

The list of validators that are used to check the strength of user’s passwords. See Password validation for more details. By default, no validation is performed and all passwords are accepted.

Messages

Settings for django.contrib.messages.

MESSAGE_LEVEL

Default: messages.INFO

Sets the minimum message level that will be recorded by the messages framework. See message levels for more details.

Important

If you override MESSAGE_LEVEL in your settings file and rely on any of the built-in constants, you must import the constants module directly to avoid the potential for circular imports, e.g.:

from django.contrib.messages import constants as message_constants
MESSAGE_LEVEL = message_constants.DEBUG

If desired, you may specify the numeric values for the constants directly according to the values in the above constants table.

MESSAGE_STORAGE

Default: 'django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage'

Controls where Django stores message data. Valid values are:

  • 'django.contrib.messages.storage.fallback.FallbackStorage'
  • 'django.contrib.messages.storage.session.SessionStorage'
  • 'django.contrib.messages.storage.cookie.CookieStorage'

See message storage backends for more details.

The backends that use cookies – CookieStorage and FallbackStorage – use the value of SESSION_COOKIE_DOMAIN, SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE and SESSION_COOKIE_HTTPONLY when setting their cookies.

MESSAGE_TAGS

Default:

{
    messages.DEBUG: 'debug',
    messages.INFO: 'info',
    messages.SUCCESS: 'success',
    messages.WARNING: 'warning',
    messages.ERROR: 'error',
}

This sets the mapping of message level to message tag, which is typically rendered as a CSS class in HTML. If you specify a value, it will extend the default. This means you only have to specify those values which you need to override. See Displaying messages above for more details.

Important

If you override MESSAGE_TAGS in your settings file and rely on any of the built-in constants, you must import the constants module directly to avoid the potential for circular imports, e.g.:

from django.contrib.messages import constants as message_constants
MESSAGE_TAGS = {message_constants.INFO: ''}

If desired, you may specify the numeric values for the constants directly according to the values in the above constants table.

Sessions

Settings for django.contrib.sessions.

SESSION_CACHE_ALIAS

Default: 'default'

If you’re using cache-based session storage, this selects the cache to use.

SESSION_ENGINE

Default: 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.db'

Controls where Django stores session data. Included engines are:

  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.db'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.file'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.cache'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.cached_db'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.backends.signed_cookies'

See Configuring the session engine for more details.

SESSION_EXPIRE_AT_BROWSER_CLOSE

Default: False

Whether to expire the session when the user closes their browser. See Browser-length sessions vs. persistent sessions.

SESSION_FILE_PATH

Default: None

If you’re using file-based session storage, this sets the directory in which Django will store session data. When the default value (None) is used, Django will use the standard temporary directory for the system.

SESSION_SAVE_EVERY_REQUEST

Default: False

Whether to save the session data on every request. If this is False (default), then the session data will only be saved if it has been modified – that is, if any of its dictionary values have been assigned or deleted. Empty sessions won’t be created, even if this setting is active.

SESSION_SERIALIZER

Default: 'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.JSONSerializer'

Full import path of a serializer class to use for serializing session data. Included serializers are:

  • 'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.PickleSerializer'
  • 'django.contrib.sessions.serializers.JSONSerializer'

See Session serialization for details, including a warning regarding possible remote code execution when using PickleSerializer.

Sites

Settings for django.contrib.sites.

SITE_ID

Default: Not defined

The ID, as an integer, of the current site in the django_site database table. This is used so that application data can hook into specific sites and a single database can manage content for multiple sites.

Static Files

Settings for django.contrib.staticfiles.

STATIC_ROOT

Default: None

collectstatic目录的绝对路径将收集用于部署的静态文件。

Example: "/var/www/example.com/static/"

如果启用了staticfiles contrib应用程序(如在默认项目模板中那样),那么collectstatic管理命令会将静态文件收集到此目录中。 有关使用的更多详细信息,请参阅管理静态文件的操作方法。

Warning

这应该是一个最初为空的目标目录,用于将您的静态文件从其永久位置收集到一个目录中以便于部署;它是不是永久存储您的静态文件的地方。 您应该在staticfilesfinders找到的目录中执行此操作,默认情况下这些目录是'static /' app子目录以及您在STATICFILES_DIRS中包含的任何目录)。

STATIC_URL

Default: None

引用位于STATIC_ROOT中的静态文件时使用的URL。

Example: "/static/" or "http://static.example.com/"

如果不是None,则将用作资产定义Media类)和staticfiles应用程序的基本路径。 。

如果设置为非空值,它必须以斜杠结尾。

您可能需要配置这些文件以供开发,并且肯定需要在生产中执行

STATICFILES_DIRS

Default: [] (Empty list)

此设置定义了在启用FileSystemFinder查找程序时,staticfiles应用程序将经过的附加位置,例如,如果您使用collectstaticfindstatic管理命令或使用静态文件服务视图。

这应该被设置为包含完整路径到你的附加文件目录的字符串列表,例如:

STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    "/home/special.polls.com/polls/static",
    "/home/polls.com/polls/static",
    "/opt/webfiles/common",
]

请注意,即使在Windows上,这些路径也应使用Unix样式的正斜杠(例如“C/Users/user/mysite/extra_static_content”)。

Prefixes (optional)

如果你想用其他命名空间来引用其中一个位置的文件,可以可选地提供一个前缀为(前缀, 路径) 元组,例如:

STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    # ...
    ("downloads", "/opt/webfiles/stats"),
]

例如,假设您将STATIC_URL设置为'/static/'collectstatic管理命令会在STATIC_ROOT的子目录'downloads'下收集“stats”文件。

这样你就能在你的模板中使用'/static/downloads/polls_20101022.tar.gz'来引用本地文件'/opt/webfiles/stats/polls_20101022.tar.gz',例如:

<a href="{% static "downloads/polls_20101022.tar.gz" %}">

STATICFILES_STORAGE

Default: 'django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.StaticFilesStorage'

使用collectstatic管理命令收集静态文件时使用的文件存储引擎。

可以在django.contrib.staticfiles.storage.staticfiles_storage找到在此设置中定义的即时可用的存储后端实例。

For an example, see Serving static files from a cloud service or CDN.

STATICFILES_FINDERS

Default:

[
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder',
]

The list of finder backends that know how to find static files in various locations.

The default will find files stored in the STATICFILES_DIRS setting (using django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder) and in a static subdirectory of each app (using django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder). If multiple files with the same name are present, the first file that is found will be used.

One finder is disabled by default: django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.DefaultStorageFinder. If added to your STATICFILES_FINDERS setting, it will look for static files in the default file storage as defined by the DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE setting.

Note

When using the AppDirectoriesFinder finder, make sure your apps can be found by staticfiles. Simply add the app to the INSTALLED_APPS setting of your site.

Static file finders are currently considered a private interface, and this interface is thus undocumented.

Core Settings Topical Index

Templates